The sputnik V vaccine was developed by the Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Russia.
It was the first vaccine for coronavirus which was given authorization.
The Sputnik V Vaccine And Its Side Effects
It is crucial to discuss the issues that came forward during the clinical trials and their probable side effects.
Credentials of the vaccine.
Sputnik vaccine or originally known as the Gam-COVID-Vac was developed by the Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Russia.
It was the first vaccine in the world to have gained clearance to be used against the covid-19 pandemic.
64 other countries alongside Russia have approved the vaccine for usage.
Some of the countries where Sputnik V is authorized to administer are India, Argentina, and Iran.
For use in the European Union nations, the European Medicines Agency is analyzing the specifications of the vaccine.
Mode of action of Sputnik V
Reportedly, Sputnik V is a viral vector vaccine of the adenovirus category. It contains an efficiency factor of 96%.
Adenovirus viruses are responsible for the common cold and flu-like symptoms.
In the case of covid-19, they act as a medium for the transfer of the DNA of the virus that will produce the proteins for the coronavirus within the body.
The production of antibodies against the protein is then initiated which in turn causes the infection to spread in the individual.
The two doses of the Sputnik V vaccine contain two different types of adenovirus.
AD-26 or known as type 26 is the constituent of the first dose whereas the second dose is made up of a booster dose carrying AD-5 or type 5 adenovirus.
Two types of adenovirus are used to ensure that antibodies are not developed within the body following the first dose which will render the vaccine ineffective.
What to expect as side effects after the shots.
The February 2021 edition of Lancet contained the clinical data regarding the vaccinations, which accounted for a few side effects that can be seen in individuals followed by the shots.
These include headache, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, and reactions at the injection site.
However, these side effects are not exclusive to Sputnik V and also noted in the other variants like the Moderna, Pfizer, and the J&J vaccine, as stated by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
There are still many contentions regarding the vaccine. According to some experts, this might have stemmed from the early clearance given to Sputnik V in August of 2020 and the lack of available data.
An article published in the May 12th edition of the Lancet claims that the 3rd round of trials not having enough data and there were reported irregularities in the data.
The risks associated with the virus.
Adenoviruses are able to duplicate within the body to induce common cold-like symptoms. While used as a vaccine they are tailored to lose such ability. As for Sputnik V, the particular gene E1 was removed.
However, Brazil has stopped the use of Sputnik V citing the presence of duplicating particles in the vaccine doses.
Such presence of the particles carries a probability of inducing duplication within the body, as stated by Anvisa, the health regulatory agency of Brazil.
It was received a varying reaction from the experts, while some blamed the lack of honesty in part of Russia, others held Anvisa accountable for faulty Interpretation of clinical data.
Furthermore, a 2008 study reveals that the AD-5 type of adenovirus used in the Sputnik V booster second dose has risks of HIV associated with it.
Although further extensive research and analysis are required to assess the risk the use of AD-5 type adenovirus vaccine should be carried out along with precautionary measures in places that are susceptible to high rates of HIV or AIDS infection.